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Krakatoa (27 August 1883)

Facts:

-4 huge eruptions

-eruption felt around the world, matched 400 megatons of TNT

-shockwave reverberated across the globe several times

-Average global temperatures fell by as much as 1.2 degrees Celsius in the year following the eruption. Weather patterns continued to be chaotic for years and temperatures did not return to normal until 1888

-Explosion sent the island flying, creating another island volcano, Anak Krakatoa

-Two-thirds of the island collapsed beneath the sea, generating a series of devasting pyroclastic flows and immense tsunamis that ravaged adjacent coastlines

-tsunami from eruption killed about 34000 people

-Pyroclastic flows of hot ash travlled more than 80km high across surface of the sea killing 2000 people

-most fatalities not caused by eruptions but secondary effects of it. Mainly, tsunamis and pyroclastic flow


Cause: volcano grew in height of 2600 feet

-minor volcanic activity kept accelerating

-Indo-Australian plate subducts under the Eurasian plate.

-In May, 1883, a series of eruptions commenced which continued until August 27, 1883, when a cataclismic explosion blew the island apart.

-The large explosion was due to super-hot steam, created when the walls of the volcano ruptered and let ocean water into the magma chamber.


Effects:
Krakatoa The Last Days, Clip 1 - Tsunami (HD)09:44

Krakatoa The Last Days, Clip 1 - Tsunami (HD)

Documentary-Drama, real life account of effects of eruption

Short term:

-165 villages destroyed

-tsunami

-earthquake

-pyroclastic flow

-ash clouds

-shockwave caused the loudest noise ever recorded in human history (heard 3000km away, Austrailia)

-entire island blown apart


Long term:

-millions of tons of sulphur erupted stayed in the atmosphere

-global temperatures fell, lasted through the 20th century

-much land destroyed

-many lives lost

-heavy costs on dutch government ruling Indonesia to recuperate from disasters from volcano


Prediction:

extreme seismic activity

animal activity fluctuating


Sources

http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/interior/Krakatoa.html

http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/Krakatau.html

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